Your clinical training will consist of the first two years spent in core rotations. During the core rotations you will obtain the basic knowledge and technical skills needed to proceed to more advanced training in a subspecialty area. The first year consists of rotations through the various subspecialty laboratories. During the second year, the information learned in the laboratories will be applied to patient care (both inpatient and outpatient).


Presented every Wednesday, our fellowship educational seminars are exceptional supplements to clinical and research training. Fellows attend weekly, five-hour sessions covering ECG interpretation, core didactic lectures, journal club, non-invasive and invasive imaging, professor rounds, and visiting professor lectures.

Case Studies

During your fellowship, you will prepare case study presentations for CV Grand Rounds, present the pertinent information of an interesting case, conduct an in-depth discussion of that case, and create a current bibliography.

Teaching Opportunities

You will have the opportunity to teach University of Minnesota Medical School students, residents and visiting students from other medical schools through bedside instruction and formal didactic lectures.

Call Frequency

Your call schedule will vary by individual rotation. The University of Minnesota Graduate Medical School follows the recommendations of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME).


Moonlighting is permitted for licensed fellows. Moonlighting activities may be scheduled during those times when you are assigned to consultative or outpatient rotations.

Moonlighting should not interfere with the required learning and must not violate the ACGME's work hour rules or visa regulations. Moonlighting should not compromise your education, but rather enhance it.


To ensure that you acquire adequate knowledge and develop your technical skills, your performance will be monitored carefully during the course of your cardiovascular fellowship program. You will be evaluated formally by your supervising faculty member after each clinical rotation. In addition, you will regularly evaluate the faculty to ensure that your educational needs are being met.


Rotation Sites

The University of Minnesota program is offered through the cooperation of four hospitals. Clinical rotations at these sites offer diverse training experiences through varied patient populations, levels of patient acuity, service-delivery arrangements, and academic professional relationships. Participating hospitals include:

Methodist Hospital, a private, suburban hospital staffed by the physicians of Park Nicollet, a large multi-specialty practice group.

Minneapolis VA Health Care System, known throughout the MVAHCS for its cardiac services.

MHealth University of Minnesota Medical Center (in partnership with Fairview Health Services), a tertiary/quaternary clinical and research center with an international reputation for its heart failure and heart transplant programs. Affiliated with the Lillehei Heart Institute.

Regions Hospital, a private, urban hospital that treats a diverse patient population.

Typical Core Rotation Schedule

The following is a typical two-year core rotation schedule:

First Year Rotations Length
Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory 3 months
Echocardiography Laboratory 2 months
Coronary Care Unit 2 months
Heart Failure/Transplant Service 2 months
Inpatient Service 3 months
Second Year Rotations Length
Electrophysiology 2 months
Inpatient Consultations 3 months
Nuclear Cardiology 2 months
Prevention/Vascular 1 month
Imaging 2 months
Electrocardiography Laboratory 2 months


Clinical conferences, seminars, small discussion groups, journal clubs and one-on-one instruction are integral parts of our Cardiovascular Diseases Fellowship Program. You will have ample opportunity to attend and participate in these activities. For example:


  • Adult Catheterization Laboratory Conference
  • Cardiovascular Grand Rounds
  • Catheterization Laboratory Hemodynamic Conference
  • Clinical Examination Rounds
  • Echocardiography Laboratory Conference
  • Electrophysiology Conference
  • Electrophysiology Journal Club
  • Hypertension Conference
  • Nuclear Cardiology Conference
  • Pacemaker Conference
  • Pediatric Catheterization Conference
  • Vascular Conferences


  • Echocardiography Journal Club
  • Heart Failure Journal Club
  • Nuclear Journal Club
  • Trainee Journal Club

A core curriculum conference sequence for cardiovascular fellows is held each Wednesday afternoon throughout the academic year. This series covers all major areas of cardiovascular medicine. In addition, six to eight visiting faculty dinner meetings and lectureships are held annually.


After two years of core rotations, you will finish your fellowship with one year each of research and electives. These years are tailored to individual interests and goals. Although you will participate in research activities throughout your entire fellowship, this additional year of research allows you to gain significant experience in a particular basic science or clinical subspecialty area.

Available Subspecialty Research Areas

  • Cardiovascular Imaging
  • Cardiovascular Molecular Biology
  • Electrophysiology
  • Epidemiology

Clinical Subspecialty Research Options

  • Adult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic
  • Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory
  • Cardiac Imaging
  • Echocardiography Laboratory
  • Electrophysiology Laboratory
  • Heart Failure Clinic and Transplant Service
  • Hemodynamics
  • Nuclear Medicine Laboratory

Our cardiovascular fellows have consistently succeeded in publishing the results of their research; approximately 60 papers and abstracts are published by fellows each year. Our fellows also have received many national awards, including the American College of Cardiology Young Investigators Award, American College of Cardiology/Merck Scholarship, American College of Cardiology/Bristol Laboratories Travel Award and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology Young Investigators Award.


Our elective options in the University of Minnesota's Cardiovascular Diseases Subspecialty Fellowship Program are outstanding.

Elective Options

  • Six to 12 months focusing on invasive cardiology — including complex hemodynamics, procedures such as transseptal catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy and clinical invasive investigation
  • More training in the clinic
  • Six to 12 months in echocardiography, including intensive exposure to transesophageal and stress echocardiography
  • Six to 12 months in advanced training in nuclear cardiology, which can fulfill the requirements for licensure by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (This training will include in-depth exposure to physics, radiation safety, radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation, as well as more experience in reading and interpreting radionuclide angiograms and thallium/sestamibi scintigrams.)
  • Six months gaining intensive implantation experience in the pacemaker laboratory
  • More clinical experience in peripheral vascular diseases and training in noninvasive testing, imaging techniques and catheter therapies
  • Training in adult congenital heart disease

Two years of advanced training and research meeting board eligibility requirements are available in:

  • Electrophysiology
  • Interventional cardiac catheterization