Non-invasive Neuromodulation Lab (NNL)

The Non-invasive Neuromodulation Laboratories are supported by MnDRIVE (Minnesota's Discovery, Research and InnoVation Economy) which is a landmark partnership between the University of Minnesota and the State of Minnesota. Services provided include technical support, equipment operation training, data collection assistance, data processing and analysis and custom hardware/software systems to fit specialized experiment designs.

The Non-invasive Neuromodulation Laboratories are equipped with the most advanced non-invasive neuromodulation devices/systems, including:

  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, TMS: The Magstim BiStim² and Magstim 200² set (The Magstim Co. Ltd., Carmarthenshire, UK)
  • Repetitive TMS, rTMS: The Magstim Rapid2 (The Magstim Co. Ltd., Carmarthenshire, UK)
  • Electromyogram, EMG acquisition system: 4-ch bipolar EMG pre-amplifier (Y03-2, Motion Lab Systems, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA) (Gain: 300, band-pass filter: 20~2000Hz)
  • Transcranial Direct/Alternative Current Stimulation, tDCS/tACS: Starstim NE wireless alternative/direct current stimulation system with 8-ch wireless EEG amplifier (Neuroelectrics SL, Massachusetts, USA)
  • Electroencephalogram, EEG acquisition system: 64-ch Brain Products BrainAMP ExG amplification system (Brain Products GmbH, Gilching, Germany)
  • Electrical stimulator: 2-ch Grass S88X constant current isolated stimulator (Natus Neurology Incorporated - Grass Products, Rhode Island, USA)
  • Neuronavigation system: frameless stereotactic BrainSight II neuronavigation system (Rogue Research Inc, Quebec, Canada)
  • Medical grade isolation transformer: ISB-100W medical grade isolation transformer (Power Sources Unlimited, Inc, Massachusetts, USA)
  • System control platform: including data acquisition system: NI 9234 Analog-to-digital converter (National Instruments, Austin, TX) with a sampling rate up to 100K Hz with a quantification resolution of 24-bit. Real-time data monitoring and analysis system powered by LabVIEW (v2012, National Instruments, Austin, TX). Equipment communication and control system powered by LabVIEW (v2012, National Instruments, Austin, TX)

The primary Non-invasive Neuromodulation Laboratory has a space of 500 square feet for experiments and consenting paperwork. The secondary Non-invasive Neuromodulation Laboratory has the space of approximately 120 square feet for experiments and consenting paperwork and is located in a child-friendly area of the building. All operating hours allow for clinical nurse support and free participant parking. With equipment and facilities, the Non-invasive Neuromodulation Laboratories are able to conduct almost all of the non-invasive TMS excitability assessments and neuromodulation paradigms including:

  • Cortical excitability assessment:
    • Single pulse: basic excitability assessment including single pulse test, S-R curve, CSP and cortical grid mapping.
    • Paired-pulse: SICI, ICF, SICF, LICI, IHI, I-wave curve, ISI curve, CI curve and SAI.
  • Neuromodulation interventions:
    • Low-frequency rTMS (inhibitory) and sham
    • High-frequency rTMS (facilitatory) and sham
    • PAS intervention which combines low-frequency rTMS with peripheral electrical stimulation. We can easily record the N20 SEP by customized fast EEG acquisition method, and use the N20 as a reference to induce LTD-/LTD-like PAS neuromodulation intervention (inhibitory and facilitatory respectively)
    • tDCS (StarStim, Neuroelectrics, Barcelona, Spain)
    • tACS (StarStim, Neuroelectrics, Barcelona, Spain)
  • Sensory function evaluation:
    • N20 SEP latency
    • Temporal discrimination test
    • Electrical stimulation perceptual threshold
  • Customized experiment protocol:
  • The system control platform is highly customizable to any new/tailored protocol design.

Research Team


Kelvin Lim, MD

Steering Committee

Kelvin Lim, MD
Christine Conelea, PhD, LP
Alex Opitz, PhD

Lab Manager

Mo Chen, PhD


Alana Lieske