Once a promising biomarker has been identified, it must be characterized and validated as a worthwhile target for scientists and clinicians.
This process can be quite challenging: Long-term experimentation is necessary to determine the function of a given biomarker within the human body, and large datasets with many patient samples are needed to demonstrate fluctuations in the concentration of the biomarker as the disease state progresses.
See below for information regarding specific biomarkers being validated by the OCEDP:
The expression of Nectin-4 on the surface of ovarian cancer cells alters their ability to adhere, migrate, aggregate, and proliferate.
Boylan KL, Buchanan PC, Manion RD, Shukla DM, Braumberger K, Bruggemeyer C, Skubitz AP.
The cell adhesion molecule Nectin-4 is overexpressed in epithelial cancers, including ovarian cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the biological significance of Nectin-4 in the adhesion, aggregation, migration, and proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. Nectin-4 and its binding partner Nectin-1 were detected in patients' primary tumors, omental metastases, and ascites cells. The human cell lines NIH:OVCAR5 and CAOV3 were genetically modified to alter Nectin-4 expression. Cells that overexpressed Nectin-4 adhered to Nectin-1 in a concentration and time-dependent manner and adhesion was inhibited by antibodies to Nectin-4 and Nectin-1, as well as synthetic Nectin peptides. In functional assays, CAOV3 cells with Nectin-4 knock-down were unable to form spheroids and migrated more slowly than CAOV3 parental cells expressing Nectin-4. NIH:OVCAR5 parental cells proliferated more rapidly, migrated faster, and formed larger spheroids than either the Nectin-4 knock-down or over-expressing cells. Parental cell lines expressed higher levels of epithelial markers and lower levels of mesenchymal markers compared to Nectin-4 knock-down cells, suggesting a role for Nectin-4 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Our results demonstrate that Nectin-4 promotes cell-cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Understanding the biology of Nectin-4 in ovarian cancer progression is critical to facilitate its development as a novel therapeutic target.
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Nectin 4 overexpression in ovarian cancer tissues and serum: potential role as a serum biomarker.
Derycke MS, Pambuccian SE, Gilks CB, Kalloger SE, Ghidouche A, Lopez M, Bliss RL, Geller MA, Argenta PA, Harrington KM, Skubitz AP.
Early detection of ovarian cancer is difficult owing to the lack of specific and sensitive tests available. Previously, we found expression of nectin 4 to be increased in ovarian cancer compared with normal ovaries. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR validated the overexpression of nectin 4 messenger RNA in ovarian cancer compared with normal ovarian cell lines and tissues. Protein levels of nectin 4 were elevated in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissue compared with normal ovarian cell lines as demonstrated by Western immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarray slides. Cleaved nectin 4 was detectable in a number of patient serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In patients with benign gynecologic diseases with high serum CA125 levels, nectin 4 was not detected in the majority of cases, suggesting that nectin 4 may serve as a potential biomarker that helps discriminate benign gynecologic diseases from ovarian cancer in a panel with CA125.
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Ectodomain shedding of the cell adhesion molecule Nectin-4 in ovarian cancer is mediated by ADAM10 and ADAM17.
Buchanan PC, Boylan KLM, Walcheck B, Heinze R, Geller MA, Argenta PA, Skubitz APN.
We previously showed that the cell adhesion molecule Nectin-4 is overexpressed in ovarian cancer tumors, and its cleaved extracellular domain can be detected in the serum of ovarian cancer patients. The ADAM (adisintegrin and metalloproteinase) proteases are involved in ectodomain cleavage of transmembrane proteins, and ADAM17 is known to cleave Nectin-4 in breast cancer. However, the mechanism of Nectin-4 cleavage in ovarian cancer has not yet been determined. Analysis of ovarian cancer gene microarray data showed that higher expression of Nectin-4, ADAM10, and ADAM17 is associated with significantly decreased progression-free survival. We quantified Nectin-4 shedding from the surface of ovarian cancer cells after stimulation with lysophosphatidic acid. We report that ADAM17 and ADAM10 cleave Nectin-4 and release soluble Nectin-4 (sN4). Small molecule inhibitors and siRNA knockdown of both ADAM proteases confirmed these results. In matched samples from 11 high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients, we detected 2-20-fold more sN4 in ascites fluid than serum. Co-incubation of ovarian cancer cells with ascites fluid significantly increased sN4 shedding, which could be blocked using a dual inhibitor of ADAM10 and ADAM17. Furthermore, we detected RNA for Nectin-4, ADAM10, and ADAM17 in primary ovarian carcinoma tumors, secondary omental metastases, and ascites cells isolated from serous ovarian cancer patients. In a signaling pathway screen, lysophosphatidic acid increased phosphorylation of AKT, EGF receptor, ERK1/2, JNK1/2/3, and c-Jun. Understanding the function of Nectin-4 shedding in ovarian cancer progression is critical to facilitate its development as both a serum biomarker and a therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
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S100A1 expression in ovarian and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas is a prognostic indicator of relapse-free survival.
DeRycke MS, Andersen JD, Harrington KM, Pambuccian SE, Kalloger SE, Boylan KL, Argenta PA, Skubitz AP.
Abstract: Ovarian cancer remains the fifth leading cause of cancer death for women in the United States. In this study, the gene expression of 20 ovarian carcinomas, 17 ovarian carcinomas metastatic to the omentum, and 50 normal ovaries was determined by Gene Logic Inc. using Affymetrix GeneChip HU_95 arrays containing approximately 12,000 known genes. Differences in gene expression were quantified as fold changes in gene expression in ovarian carcinomas compared to normal ovaries and ovarian carcinoma metastases. Genes up-regulated in ovarian carcinoma tissue samples compared to more than 300 other normal and diseased tissue samples were identified. Seven genes were selected for further screening by immunohistochemistry to determine the presence and localization of the proteins. These seven genes were: the beta8 integrin subunit, bone morphogenetic protein-7, claudin-4, collagen type IX alpha2, cellular retinoic acid binding protein-1, forkhead box J1, and S100 calcium-binding protein A1. Statistical analyses showed that the beta8 integrin subunit, claudin-4, and S100A1 provided the best distinction between ovarian carcinoma and normal ovary tissues, and may serve as the best candidate tumor markers among the seven genes studied. These results suggest that further exploration into other up-regulated genes may identify novel diagnostic, therapeutic, and/or prognostic biomarkers in ovarian carcinoma.
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Quantitative comparison of immunohistochemical staining measured by digital image analysis versus pathologist visual scoring.
Rizzardi AE, Johnson AT, Vogel RI, Pambuccian SE, Henriksen J, Skubitz AP, Metzger GJ, Schmechel SC.
Abstract: Immunohistochemical (IHC) assays performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections traditionally have been semi-quantified by pathologist visual scoring of staining. IHC is useful for validating biomarkers discovered through genomics methods as large clinical repositories of FFPE specimens support the construction of tissue microarrays (TMAs) for high throughput studies. Due to the ubiquitous availability of IHC techniques in clinical laboratories, validated IHC biomarkers may be translated readily into clinical use. However, the method of pathologist semi-quantification is costly, inherently subjective, and produces ordinal rather than continuous variable data. Computer-aided analysis of digitized whole slide images may overcome these limitations. Using TMAs representing 215 ovarian serous carcinoma specimens stained for S100A1, we assessed the degree to which data obtained using computer-aided methods correlated with data obtained by pathologist visual scoring. To evaluate computer-aided image classification, IHC staining within pathologist annotated and software-classified areas of carcinoma were compared for each case. Two metrics for IHC staining were used: the percentage of carcinoma with S100A1 staining (%Pos), and the product of the staining intensity (optical density [OD] of staining) multiplied by the percentage of carcinoma with S100A1 staining (OD*%Pos). A comparison of the IHC staining data obtained from manual annotations and software-derived annotations showed strong agreement, indicating that software efficiently classifies carcinomatous areas within IHC slide images. Comparisons of IHC intensity data derived using pixel analysis software versus pathologist visual scoring demonstrated high Spearman correlations of 0.88 for %Pos (p < 0.0001) and 0.90 for OD*%Pos (p < 0.0001). This study demonstrated that computer-aided methods to classify image areas of interest (e.g., carcinomatous areas of tissue specimens) and quantify IHC staining intensity within those areas can produce highly similar data to visual evaluation by a pathologist.
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Claudin 4 Is differentially expressed between ovarian cancer subtypes and plays a role in spheroid formation.
Boylan KL, Misemer B, De Rycke MS, Andersen JD, Harrington KM, Kalloger SE, Gilks CB, Pambuccian SE, Skubitz AP.
Claudin 4 is a cellular adhesion molecule that is frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer and other epithelial cancers. In this study, we sought to determine whether the expression of claudin 4 is associated with outcome in ovarian cancer patients and may be involved in tumor progression. We examined claudin 4 expression in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays (TMAs; n = 500), spheroids present in patients' ascites, and spheroids formed in vitro. Claudin 4 was expressed in nearly 70% of the ovarian cancer tissues examined and was differentially expressed across ovarian cancer subtypes, with the lowest expression in clear cell subtype. No association was found between claudin 4 expression and disease-specific survival in any subtype. Claudin 4 expression was also observed in multicellular spheroids obtained from patients' ascites. Using an in vitro spheroid formation assay, we found that NIH:OVCAR5 cells treated with shRNA against claudin 4required a longer time to form compact spheroids compared to control NIH:OVCAR5 cells that expressed high levels of claudin 4. The inability of the NIH:OVCAR5 cells treated with claudin 4 shRNA to form compact spheroids was verified by FITC-dextran exclusion. These results demonstrate a role for claudin 4 and tight junctions in spheroid formation and integrity.
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Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 is upregulated in sera and tumors of ovarian cancer patients.
Andersen JD, Boylan KL, Jemmerson R, Geller MA, Misemer B, Harrington KM, Weivoda S, Witthuhn BA, Argenta P, Vogel RI, Skubitz AP.
New biomarkers that replace or are used in conjunction with the current ovarian cancer diagnostic antigen, CA125, are needed for detection of ovarian cancer in the presurgical setting, as well as for detection of disease recurrence. We previously demonstrated the upregulation of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 (LRG1) in the sera of ovarian cancer patients compared to healthy women using quantitative mass spectrometry.
LRG1 was quantified by ELISA in serum from two relatively large cohorts of women with ovarian cancer and benign gynecological disease. The expression of LRG1 in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines was examined by gene microarray, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, immunocytochemistry and mass spectrometry.
Mean serum LRG1 was higher in 58 ovarian cancer patients than in 56 healthy women (89.33 ± 77.90 vs. 42.99 ± 9.88 ug/ml; p = 0.0008) and was highest among stage III/IV patients. In a separate set of 193 pre-surgical samples, LRG1 was higher in patients with serious or clear cell ovarian cancer (145.82 ± 65.99 ug/ml) compared to patients with benign gynecological diseases (82.53 ± 76.67 ug/ml, p < 0.0001). CA125 and LRG1 levels were moderately correlated (r = 0.47, p < 0.0001). LRG1 mRNA levels were higher in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines compared to their normal counterparts when analyzed by gene microarray and RT-PCR. LRG1 protein was detected in ovarian cancer tissue samples and cell lines by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Multiple isoforms of LRG1 were observed by Western blot and were shown to represent different glycosylation states by digestion with glycosidase. LRG1 protein was also detected in the conditioned media of ovarian cancer cell culture by ELISA, Western blotting, and mass spectrometry.
Serum LRG1 was significantly elevated in women with ovarian cancer compared to healthy women and women with benign gynecological disease, and was only moderately correlated with CA125. Ovarian cancer cells secrete LRG1 and may contribute directly to the elevated levels of LRG1 observed in the serum of ovarian cancer patients. Future studies will determine whether LRG1 may serve as a biomarker for presurgical diagnosis, disease recurrence, and/or as a target for therapy.
View the full paper here.