Timothy Schacker, MD

Vice Dean for Research, Medical School

Timothy Schacker

Contact Info

Mailing Address:
420 Delaware ST SE
MMC 250
Campus Delivery Code 8250A
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Lab Address:
Microbiology Research Facility
689 SE 23rd Ave
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Administrative Assistant Name
Craig Olson

Administrative Phone

Administrative Email

Vice Dean for Research, Medical School

Director, Program in HIV Medicine

Director, Clinical Translational Research Services, Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI)

Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Medicine


Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

Residency, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR

Fellowship, University of Washington, Seattle, WA


Timothy Schacker, M.D. is a professor of Medicine and Director of the Program in HIV Medicine at the University of Minnesota. He joined the faculty in 1996. Dr. Schacker received his M.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1986 and completed a residency in Internal Medicine at the Oregon Health Sciences University and Infectious Disease Fellowship at the University of Washington in 1993. He then joined the faculty of the University of Minnesota.

Dr. Schacker is interested in how HIV causes immune suppression and why antiretrovirals do not fully restore immunity. His group focuses on inflammatory damage in lymphatic tissues; the principal site of HIV infection, that results in fibrosis of the lymphatic structures required to maintain a normal population of CD4 cells. They are testing novel therapies to prevent and/or reverse this process and slow T cell depletion in HIV and improve their reconstitution when antiretroviral is begun. He is also the principal investigator of a federally funded program of projects designed to determine barriers to HIV eradication. In addition, Dr. Schacker has established a collaboration with the Joint Clinical Research Center in Kampala, Uganda to study how constant exposure to common infections like tuberculosis, malaria, and helminthic infections affect rates of HIV transmission and progression.


Factors that increase the likelihood and efficiency of HIV transmission and T cell homeostasis in HIV-1 infected persons

Awards & Recognition

  • Best Doctors in America® (2011-2012, 2013)
  • Mpls.St.Paul Magazine Top Doctors (2012)

Professional Associations

  • International AIDS Society
  • American Society of Microbiology
  • American Federation for Clinical Research
  • International Society for Antiviral Research
  • Infectious Disease Society of America
  • American College of Physicians


Research Summary/Interests

IL-15 to Deplete HIV Reservoirs and Improve Immune Responses; Antifibrotic Therapy to Improve Immune Reconstitution in HIV

Research Funding Grants

  • Predictors of Time to Viremia with an Analytic Treatment Interruption, amfAR, 109496-60-RGRL, Principal Investigator.
  • Reservoir Dynamics in Patients Treated in Very Early Acute HIV Infection, NIH, R01 AI125127, Principal Investigator.
  • Reversing Tissue Fibrosis to Improve Immune Reconstruction in HIV, NIH, U01AI105872, Principal Investigator.
  • Antifibrotic Therapy to Improve Immune Reconstitution in HIV, NIH, R01 AI093319-01A1, Principal Investigator.
  • IL-15 to Deplete HIV Reservoirs and Improve Immune Responses, Altor Bioscience, ALT-803, Principal Investigator.


  • Du J, Paz K, Flynn R, Vulic A, Robinson TM, Lineburg KE, Alexander KA, Meng J, Roy S, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, Loschi M, Hill GR, Serody JS, Maillard I, Miklos D, Koreth J, Cutler CS, Antin JH, Ritz J, MacDonald KP, Schacker TW, Luznik L, Blazar BR. Pirfenidone ameliorates murine chronic GVHD through inhibition of macrophage and TGF-b production. Blood. 2017 Mar 2. pii: blood-2017-01-758854. doi: 10.1182/blood-2017-01-758854. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 28254742
  • Lederman MM, Cannon PM, Currier JS, June CH, Kiem HP, Kuritzkes DR, Lewin SR, Margolis DM, McCune JM, Mellors JW, Schacker TW, Sekaly RP, Tebas P, Walker BD, Douek DC. A Cure for HIV Infection: "Not in My Lifetime" or "Just Around the Corner"? Pathog Immun. 2016 Spring;1(1):154-164. PMID: 27668293
  • Leong YA, Chen Y, Ong HS, Wu D, Man K, Deleage C, Minnich M, Meckiff BJ, Wei Y, Hou Z, Zotos D, Fenix KA, Atnerkar A, Preston S, Chipman JG, Beilman GJ, Allison CC, Sun L, Wang P, Xu J, Toe JG, Lu HK, Tao Y, Palendira U, Dent AL, Landay AL, Pellegrini M, Comerford I, McColl SR, Schacker TW, Long HM, Estes JD, Busslinger M, Belz GT, Lewin SR, Kallies A, Yu D.CXCR5(+) follicular cytotoxic T cells control viral infection in B cell follicles.Nat Immunol. 2016 Oct;17(10):1187-96. doi: 10.1038/ni.3543. Epub 2016 Aug 3.PMID: 27487330
  • Boritz EA, Darko S, Swaszek L, Wolf G, Wells D, Wu X, Henry AR, Laboune F, Hu J, Ambrozak D, Hughes MS, Hoh R, Casazza JP, Vostal A, Bunis D, Nganou-Makamdop K, Lee JS, Migueles SA, Koup RA, Connors M, Moir S, Schacker TW, Maldarelli F, Hughes SH, Deeks SG, Douek DC.Multiple Origins of Virus Persistence during Natural Control of HIV Infection.Cell. 2016 Aug 11;166(4):1004-15. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.06.039. Epub 2016 Jul 21.PMID: 27453467
  • Deleage C, Schuetz A, Alvord WG, Johnston L, Hao XP, Morcock DR, Rerknimitr R, Fletcher JL, Puttamaswin S, Phanuphak N, Dewar R, McCune JM, Sereti I, Robb M, Kim JH, Schacker TW, Hunt P, Lifson JD, Ananworanich J, Estes JD.Impact of early cART in the gut during acute HIV infection.JCI Insight. 2016 Jul 7;1(10). pii: e87065.PMID: 27446990
  • Deleage C, Wietgrefe SW, Del Prete G, Morcock DR, Hao XP, Piatak M Jr, Bess J, Anderson JL, Perkey KE, Reilly C, McCune JM, Haase AT, Lifson JD, Schacker TW, Estes JD.Defining HIV and SIV Reservoirs in Lymphoid Tissues.Pathog Immun. 2016 Spring;1(1):68-106.PMID: 27430032
  • Younes SA, Freeman ML, Mudd JC, Shive CL, Reynaldi A, Panigrahi S, Estes JD, Deleage C, Lucero C, Anderson J, Schacker TW, Davenport MP, McCune JM, Hunt PW, Lee SA, Serrano-Villar S, Debernardo RL, Jacobson JM, Canaday DH, Sekaly RP, Rodriguez B, Sieg SF, Lederman MM. IL-15 promotes activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells in HIV-1 infection. J Clin Invest. 2016 Jul 1;126(7):2745-56. doi: 10.1172/JCI85996. Epub 2016 Jun 20. PMID: 27322062.
  • Sips M, Krykbaeva M, Diefenbach TJ, Ghebremichael M, Bowman BA, Dugast AS, Boesch AW, Streeck H, Kwon DS, Ackerman ME, Suscovich TJ, Brouckaert P, Schacker TW, Alter G. Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in tissues as a potent mechanism for preventive and therapeutic HIV vaccine strategies. Mucosal Immunol. 2016; Feb 17. doi: 10.1038/mi.2016.12. PMID: 26883728.
  • Lorenzo-Redondo R, Fryer HR, Bedford T, Kim EY, Archer J, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Chung YS, Penugonda S, Chipman JG, Fletcher CV, Schacker TW, Malim MH, Rambaut A, Haase AT, McLean AR, Wolinsky SM. Persistent HIV-1 replication maintains the tissue reservoir during therapy. Nature. 2016;4;530(7588):51-6. doi: 10.1038/nature16933. Epub 2016 Jan 27. PMID: 26814962.
  • Schiffer JT, Swan DA, Magaret A, Schacker TW, Wald A, Corey L. Mathematical Modeling Predicts that Increased HSV-2 Shedding in HIV-1 Infected Persons Is Due to Poor Immunologic Control in Ganglia and Genital Mucosa. PLoS One. 2016; 10;11(6):e0155124. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155124. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27285483.
  • Rothenberger MK, Keele BF, Wietgrefe SW, Fletcher CV, Beilman GJ, Chipman, JG, Khoruts A, Estes JD, Anderson J, Callisto SP, Schmidt TE, Thorkelson A, Reilly C, Perkey K, Reimann TG, Utay NS, Naganou Makamdop K, Stevenson M, Douek DC, Haase AT, Schacker TW. Large number of rebounding/founder HIV variants emerge from multifocal infection in lymphatic tissues after treatment interruption. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015;112(10):E1126-1134. doi.10.1073/pnas.1414926112. Epub 2015 Feb 23. PMID:25713386.
  • Schacker TW. Defining success with antiretroviral therapy. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2015;175(1):99-100. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4004. No abstract available. PMID:25419970.
  • Sanchez JL, Hunt PW, Reilly CS, Hatano H, Beilman GJ, Khoruts A, Jasurda JS, Somsouk M, Thorkelson A, Russ S, Anderson J, Deeks SG, Schacker TW. Lymphoid fibrosis occurs in long-term nonprogressors and persists with antiretroviral therapy but may be reversible with curative interventions. The Journal of Infectious Disease. 2015;211(7):1068-1075. doi; 10.1093/infdis/jiu586. Epub 2014 Oct 24. PMID:25344521
  • Estes JD, Reilly C, Trubey CM, Fletcher CV, Cory TJ, Piatak M Jr, Russ S, Anderson J, Reimann TG, Star R, Smith A, Tracy RP, Berglund A, Schmidt T, Coalter V, Chertova E, Smedley J, Haase AT, Lifson JD, Schacker TW. Antifibrotic therapy in simian immunodeficiency virus infection preserves CD4+T-cell populations and improves immune reconstitution with antiretroviral therapy. The Journal of Infectious Disease. 2015;211(5):744-754. Doi:10.1093/infdis/jiu519. Epub 2014 Sep 22. PMID: 25246534
  • Fletcher CV, Staskus K, Wietgrefe SW, Rothenberger M, Reilly C, Chipman JG, Beilman GJ, Khoruts A, Thorkelson A, Schmidt TE, Anderson J, Perkey K, Stevenson M, Perelson AS, Douek DC, Haase AT, Schacker TW. Persistent HIV-1 replication is associated with lower antiretroviral drug concentrations in lymphatic tissues. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014;111(6):2307-2312. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1318249111. Epub 2014 Jan 27. PMID 24469825
  • Zeng M, Haase AT, Schacker TW. Lymphoid tissue structure and HIV-1 infection: life or death for T cells. Trends in Immunology. 2012;33(6):306-314. Epub 2012 May 19. PMID: 22613276.
  • Schacker TW, Bosch RJ, Bennett K, Pollard R, Robbins G, Collier AC, Gulick R, Spritzler J, Mildvan D; AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG). Measurement of naive CD4 cells reliably predicts potential for immune reconstitution in HIV. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2010;54(1):59-62
  • Estes JD, Haase AT, Schacker TW. The role of collagen deposition in depleting CD4+ T cells and limiting reconstitution in HIV-1 and SIV infections through damage to the secondary lymphoid organ niche. Seminars in Immunology. 2008;20(3):181-186
  • Estes J, Baker J, Brenchley JM, Khoruts A, Barthold J, Bantle A, Reilly C, Beilman GJ, George ME, Douek D, Haase AT, Schacker TW. Collagen deposition limits immune reconstitution in the gut. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2008;198(4):456-464
  • Schacker TW. The role of secondary lymphatic tissue in immune deficiency of HIV infection. AIDS. 2008;22(3):S13-8



Delaware Street Clinic (Infectious Disease/HIV Clinic)

Board Certifications

Internal Medicine

Clinical Interests