Understanding Infrastructure Transformation Effects on Diabetes

UNderstanding Infrastructure Transformation Effects on Diabetes (UNITED) uses multiple sources of rich, longitudinal data to discover causal links between primary care patient-centered medical home practice redesign and improvement in the delivery of optimal diabetes care and diabetes-related utilization.

The study evaluates changes across multiple organizational domains to determine which clinical services are most likely to improve the clinical outcomes of individuals with diabetes seen in a primary care practice.

View UNITED Press Release

Caroline Carlin PhD-2016 from Medica Research Institute on Vimeo.

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Multi-Principal Investigators

  • Kevin A. Peterson, MD, MPH


External Advisory Board Members

  • Renee Kidney, PhD, MPH, Minnesota Department of Health
  • Patrick O’Connor, MD, MPH, HealthPartners Institute
  • Bonnie LaPlante, Minnesota Department of Health
  • Kathleen Culhane-Pera, MD, MA, UMN Family Medicine and Community Health 


  1. Solberg L, Peterson K, Fu H, Eder M, Jacobsen R, Carlin C. Strategies and Factors Associated with Top Performance in Primary Care for DIabetes: Insights from a Mixed Methods Study. Annals of Family Medicine. March 2021, 19 (2) 110-116 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.2646
  2. Fu H, Skolnick V, Carlin C, Solberg L, Raiter A, Peterson K. The Effect of Depression and Rurality on Diabetes Control. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. November 2020, 33 (6) 913-922;  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.2020.06.200041
  3. Carlin, CS, Peterson, K, Solberg, LI. The impact of patient‐centered medical home certification on quality of care for patients with diabetes. Health Serv Res. 2020; 00: 1– 11. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13588
  4. Solberg LI, Carlin C, Peterson KA, Eder M. Certification as a Medical Home: Does It Make a Difference in Diabetes Care?  Annals of Family Medicine, to appear.
  5. Peterson KA, Carlin C, Solberg LI, Jacobsen R, Kriel T, Eder M. Redesigning Primary Care to Improve Diabetes Outcomes (The UNITED Study). Diabetes Care. 2019 Dec 27;. doi: 10.2337/dc19-1140. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31882407.
  6. Normington J, Lock E, Carlin C, Peterson K, Carlin B. A Bayesian Difference-in-Difference Framework for the Impact of Primary Care Redesign on Diabetes Outcomes. Stat Public Policy (Phila). 2019;6(1):55-66. doi: 10.1080/2330443X.2019.1626310. Epub 2019 Jul 18. PubMed PMID: 31435498; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6703166.
  7. Styles E, Kidney RSM, Carlin C, Peterson K. Diabetes Treatment, Control, and Hospitalization Among Adults Aged 18 to 44 in Minnesota, 2013-2015. Prev Chronic Dis. 2018 Nov 21;15:E142. doi: 10.5888/pcd15.180255. PubMed PMID: 30468422; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6266539.