David Boulware

Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Medicine
Preceptor, Medical Scientist Training Program (Combined MD/PhD Training Program)
Faculty, Microbiology, Immunology and Cancer Biology (MICaB) Ph.D. Graduate Program
Faculty, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health


Administrator Info
Name: Admin
Phone: 612-624-9996
Fax: 612-625-4410
Email: idimdivision@umn.edu
Mail: Microbiology Research Building, 1st floor mail room, MMC 2821, 689 23rd Ave S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455

Dr. Boulware is an infectious disease physician-scientist with formal training in clinical trials, public health, and tropical medicine. Dr. Boulware combines his clinical research with nested basic science investigations into disease pathogenesis to conduct translational research. His primary research interests are in meningitis in resource-limited areas including diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and quality improvement initiatives incorporating cost-effectiveness analyses in order to translate knowledge into improved care. Dr. Boulware's current research is focused on improving the clinical outcomes of HIV-infected persons with cryptococcal meningitis, the second most common AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in Sub-Saharan Africa and the most common cause of adult meningitis. Additionally, Dr. Boulware has been motivated to improve the diagnostics for TB meningitis, and now that TB meningitis can be promptly diagnosed, to also improve the treatment of tuberculous meningitis. Dr. Boulware leads a multidisciplinary, international research team with active research collaborations with partners in Uganda, South Africa, Ethiopia, Brazil, Botswana, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.

Research Summary

Reducing HIV-related mortality in people living with AIDS Improving Diagnostics for Meningitis Improving treatments for Cryptococcal meningitis and TB meningitis Preventing avoidable deaths due to subclinical cryptococcosis Clinical Trials for novel meningitis therapeutics and strategies Quality improvement initiatives to improve survival in resource-limited settings Antimicrobial resistance in low and middle income countries Research Projects: Improving Diagnostics and Neurocognitive Outcomes in HIV/AIDS-related Meningitis (R01 NS086312) Phased Implementation of a Public Health Programme: Cryptococcal Screening and Treatment in South Africa. ( R01AI118511) Operational Research for Cryptococcal Antigen Screening (ORCAS) of HIV Patients (U01AI125003) Infectious Disease Training in Clinical Investigation (T32AI055433) Encochleated Oral Amphotericin for Cryptococcal Meningitis Trial TB Meningitis: Evaluating CSF Immunology to Discover Hidden Disease and Potential Immunomodulatory Therapies Redefining Tuberculosis Meningitis with Metagenomics and Host Transcriptomics NIH ACTIV-6 COVID Platform Trial

Research Interests

Clinical Summary

Central nervous system infections; AIDS-related opportunistic infections; Tropical medicine; Travel medicine; Cost Effectiveness


MD, Indiana University School of Medicine

Fellowships, Residencies, and Visiting Engagements

Internal Medicine & Pediatrics, Residency
University of Minnesota Medical School
Infectious Diseases & International Medicine, Fellowship
University of Minnesota Medical School
Selected Publications

Selected Publications

Hernandez, A. V., de Laurentis, L., Souza, I., Pessanha, M., Thota, P., Roman, Y. M., Barboza-Meca, J., Boulware, D. R., Vidal, J. E., 2021. Diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF for tuberculous meningitis: systematic review and meta-analysis.. Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH, 26 (2): 122-132.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13525 PubMed ID: 33164243.
Rajasingham, R., Smith, R. M., Park, B. J., Jarvis, J. N., Govender, N. P., Chiller, T. M., Denning, D. W., Loyse, A., Boulware, D. R., 2017. Global burden of disease of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: an updated analysis.. The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 17 (8): 873-881.
Rhein, J., Morawski, B. M., Hullsiek, K. H., Nabeta, H. W., Kiggundu, R., Tugume, L., Musubire, A., Akampurira, A., Smith, K. D., Alhadab, A., Williams, D. A., Abassi, M., Bahr, N. C., Velamakanni, S. S., Fisher, J., Nielsen, K., Meya, D. B., Boulware, D. R., 2016. Efficacy of adjunctive sertraline for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: an open-label dose-ranging study.. The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 16 (7): 809-818.
Bahr, N. C., Tugume, L., Rajasingham, R., Kiggundu, R., Williams, D. A., Morawski, B., Alland, D., Meya, D. B., Rhein, J., Boulware, D. R., 2015. Improved diagnostic sensitivity for tuberculous meningitis with Xpert(®) MTB/RIF of centrifuged CSF.. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 19 (10): 1209-15.
doi: https://doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.15.0253 PubMed ID: 26459535.
Boulware, D. R., Meya, D. B., Muzoora, C., Rolfes, M. A., Huppler Hullsiek, K., Musubire, A., Taseera, K., Nabeta, H. W., Schutz, C., Williams, D. A., Rajasingham, R., Rhein, J., Thienemann, F., Lo , M. W., Nielsen, K., Bergemann, T. L., Kambugu, A., Manabe, Y. C., Janoff, E. N., Bohjanen, P. R., Meintjes, G., 2014. Timing of antiretroviral therapy after diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis.. The New England journal of medicine, 370 (26): 2487-98.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1312884 PubMed ID: 24963568.