MINNEAPOLIS/ST. PAUL (01/05/2023) —Cervical cancer was once a leading cause of cancer death for women in the United States. Today, screening and prevention have greatly reduced the impact of this form of cancer. However, nearly 14,500 women in the U.S. still received a diagnosis of cervical cancer and more than 4,200 died from the disease in 2021, according to the National Cancer Institute

For Cervical Health Awareness Month this January, Rahel Ghebre, MD, MPH answers questions about cervical cancer. Dr. Ghebre shares her experience with the University of Minnesota Medical School, M Health Fairview, and Masonic Cancer Center to convey the importance of quality care and broad health equity in the prevention, screening, treatment and survivorship of this disease. 

Q: What is cervical cancer? How is it diagnosed?

Dr. Ghebre: Cervical cancer is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. This cancer starts in the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. HPV, a sexually transmitted infection, is the cause of almost all cervical cancers in women. It is important to know that most sexually active individuals have HPV at some point, usually in their teens and early 20s. Most people's immune system regulates HPV and prevents the virus from causing healthy cells in the cervix to develop into cancer. Persistent infection with HPV leads to developing pre-cancer cells within the cervix which then can progress into cervical cancer. Generally, this process develops slowly over time. 

Early stages of cervical cancer often cause no symptoms, so regular cervical cancer screening is the most effective way to detect cervical cancer. More advanced cervical cancer can present with vaginal bleeding, watery bloody vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, or bleeding or pain during intercourse.

Q: How can I lower my risk of developing cervical cancer?

Dr. Ghebre: There are multiple risk factors for cervical cancer, including smoking, having multiple sexual partners, sexual activity at an early age, and having a weak immune system. However, cervical cancer is one of the most preventable cancers. The World Health Organization in 2020 launched a Global Strategy to Accelerate the Elimination of Cervical Cancer.

How to reduce your risk of getting cervical cancer:

  • Cervical cancer screening: Talk to your health care provider about cervical cancer screening. Both the HPV test and Pap test (often also called a Pap smear) are screening tests that help prevent cervical cancer by detecting precancer changes.
  • HPV vaccine is very effective at reducing the risk of cervical cancer. A two-dose HPV vaccine is recommended for all to start at ages 11-12. Teens from ages 15 to 26 can also receive three doses of the vaccine. Persons who have received HPV vaccine should still continue to get regular cervical cancer screening.
  • Smoking is a risk factor for cervical cancer.  Don’t smoke and, if you do, ask your health care provider for help quitting.

Q: What health disparities exist in regard to cervical cancer?

Dr. Ghebre: Cancer health disparities result in increasing cancer burden among:

  • Racial and ethnic minorities
  • Individuals from sexual and gender minorities
  • Recent immigrants
  • Medically underserved populations including those living in certain urban and rural areas

In Minnesota, we see a similar pattern to the national trends mentioned above.. However, we need more data looking at multiple identities to fully understand how the interaction of several factors contribute to cancer health disparity. As researchers, we seek to identify cancer health disparities and understand systems that contribute to health inequities—but what our communities need are solutions to reduce health disparities and improve their health. That’s why it’s so critical that people have better access to screening while we continue to deepen our research and understanding of effective models to expand access to cervical cancer prevention. Even with the need for more data, cervical cancer is currently designated as a priority health area to eliminate health disparities with free cervical cancer screening at 475 clinics in Minnesota. 

Q: What are the treatment options for cervical cancer?

Dr. Ghebre: The U of M Medical School is a leader in the treatment of cervical cancer, which continues to evolve. Through excellence in our clinical care, education and research, we are partnering with our community to provide equitable, quality and advanced cervical cancer treatment to women in Minnesota.

Optimal treatment outcomes for cervical cancer depend on early and timely diagnosis. Cervical cancer treatment may require a combination of treatment approaches such as cancer specific surgery), chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Our oncologists work in a patient-centered model that integrates gynecological oncology surgical and chemotherapy services, radiation oncology, pain palliative care medicine, psychology, cancer rehabilitation, social work, and interpretive services to tailor cancer care to each woman diagnosed with cervical cancer. Our goal is to help women live a healthy life as cancer survivors.

Q: What work is being done at MCC to advance cervical cancer care/research? 

Dr. Ghebre: The Masonic Cancer Center (MCC) is a designated National Comprehensive Cancer Center. We exist to serve the community of Minnesota and women who are diagnosed with cervical cancer. In my role as the Associate Director for Diversity Equity and Inclusion (DEI), cervical cancer is one of our priority cancers for reducing health care disparities across Minnesota. We are working with the U of M Medical School to support researchers who are doing work in cervical cancer through initiatives that increase HPV vaccine uptake, expand pathways to innovative cervical cancer screening, or advance the newest treatment within therapeutic clinical trials. We work alongside our community engagement core in providing education in cervical cancer prevention and supporting access to cervical cancer screening, such as with the SAGE program. More broadly, in all cancer areas, our program is working to expand the diversity and inclusion of students, trainees, and researchers working within MCC. We are accelerating our work in cancer care and research to meet the needs of our community by upholding our core mission to diversity, equity, and inclusion.


Rahel Ghebre, MD, MPH is a professor at the University of Minnesota Medical School and a practicing gynecologic oncologist at M Health Fairview. Dr. Ghebre also serves as associate director of DEI for the Masonic Cancer Center. She is an expert in the surgical and medical management of women diagnosed with ovarian, endometrial, cervical, and vulva or vaginal cancers. 


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About the University of Minnesota Medical School
The University of Minnesota Medical School is at the forefront of learning and discovery, transforming medical care and educating the next generation of physicians. Our graduates and faculty produce high-impact biomedical research and advance the practice of medicine. We acknowledge that the U of M Medical School, both the Twin Cities campus and Duluth campus, is located on traditional, ancestral and contemporary lands of the Dakota and the Ojibwe, and scores of other Indigenous people, and we affirm our commitment to tribal communities and their sovereignty as we seek to improve and strengthen our relations with tribal nations. For more information about the U of M Medical School, please visit med.umn.edu.

About the Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota

The Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, is the Twin Cities’ only Comprehensive Cancer Center, designated ‘Outstanding’ by the National Cancer Institute. As Minnesota’s Cancer Center, we have served the entire state for more than 30 years. Our researchers, educators, and care providers work to discover the causes, prevention, detection, and treatment of cancer and cancer-related diseases. Learn more at cancer.umn.edu.