Lester Drewes
,
Credentials
PhD

Professor
Biography

Research Summary

The brain depends upon a supply of blood-borne nutrients to maintain its physiological function. A hallmark characteristic of the brain vasculature is an endothelium with tight occluding junctions at positions of cell-cell contact. This absence of spaces between cells prevents bulk diffusion of plasma components into the surrounding tissue. The net result of this "blood-brain barrier" is that influx and efflux of metabolic substrates and nutrients (including glucose, amino acids, and nucleosides) across the brain vasculature must occur via transport systems located in the luminal and abluminal plasma membranes of the endothelial cell. For example, glucose is the primary substrate for brain metabolism and is transported into cells via specific membrane carriers. Under normal glycemic conditions, GLUT1 and GLUT3 are the known members of the glucose transporter family responsible for carrying glucose from the blood and into the cells of the brain. This includes transport across both the luminal and abluminal sides of the endothelial cell and the plasma membranes of the neuronal and glial cells. Although recent studies have greatly expanded our knowledge about glucose transporters in several tissues, much less is currently known about these integral membrane proteins in the brain or how they are regulated in response to pathophysiological conditions. The long-term goals of my research are to characterize the molecular process by which nutrients are transported through the cells comprising the blood-brain barrier (endothelial cells) and the blood-CSF barrier (epithelial cells of the choroid plexus). These goals include an understanding of the molecular identity of the transporters, the membrane sites where transporters are located, the kinetic characteristics of substrate and inhibitor specificity, and, in the future, the mechanisms regulating trans porter activity and expression. Research describing the molecular events of blood-brain transport may be valuable in understanding neurological dysfunctions associated with stroke, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic encephalopathies. Indeed, it could lead to treatment s for minimizing these dysfunctions or for designing therapeutic strategies.

Research Interests
blood-brain barrier

Education

PhD, University of Minnesota
Major: Biochemistry
Minor: Organic Chemistry, Microbiology
BS, Capital Unviersity
Major: Chemistry

Fellowships, Residencies, and Visiting Engagements

Sabbatical Leave, Visiting Scholar
The Johns Hopkins University and Kennedy Institute (G. Goldstein)
Sabbatical Leave, Visiting Scholar
Panum Institute (C. Crone), University of Copenhagen and Max Planck Institute for Brain Research (K.-A Hossmann)
Postdoctoral Fellow, Fellowship
University of Wisconsin, Madison

Honors and Recognition

International Brain Barriers Society Award, International CVB Conference
2017
CVB Recognition Award, International Conference on CVB
2017
Outstanding Service Recognition, Cerebral Vascular Biology Conference
2013
Naito Foundation Award (Japan)
2009
Nagai Foundation (Tokyo) Distinguished Lectureship
2009
Alumni Achievement Award, Capital University
2002
Lynen Postdoctoral Fellowship, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation
1999
Jacob Javits Neuroscience Investigator Award, National Institutes of Health
1998
Frederick C. Goetz Award, American Diabetes Association-Minnesota Affiliate
1993
Bacaner Award, Minnesota Medical Foundation
1990
Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship Award
1983
National Cancer Institute Postdoctoral Fellow
1971

Professional Memberships

American Association for the Advancement of Science
Sigma Xi
International Society for Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
International Society for Neurochemistry
American Society for Neurochemistry
International Brain Barriers Society
Society for Neuroscience
American Physiological Society
American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Selected Presentations

Selected Presentations

Sadeghzadeh, M., Moldovan, R., Wenzel, B., Kranz, M., Deuther-Conrad, W., Toussaint, M., Fischer, S., Ludwig, F., Teodoro, R., Jonnalagadda, S. K., Jonnalagadda, S., Drewes, L. R., Brust, P. "Development of the first F-labeled MCT1/MCT4 lactate transport inhibitor: Radiosynthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluation in mice", International Society of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing, China. May 01, 2019.
Drewes, L. R. "Brain endothelial bioenergetics: Targeting lactate transporters and metabolism", Cleveland Clinic Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, Ohio, September 28, 2018.
McDonald, C., Blankenheim, Z., Drewes, L. R. "Brain endothelial bioenergetics via extracellular flux analysis", Gordon Research Conference, New London, New Hampshire, June 01, 2018.
Drewes, L. R. "Lactic acid transporter inhibitors and brain endothelial bioenergetics", Fourth Minnesota Neuro-Oncology Symposium, Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 07, 2018.
Drewes, L. R. "Blood-brain transport and dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease", 12th Brains for Brain Foundation (B4B) International Workshop, Frankfurt, Germany. March 08, 2018.
Drewes, L. R. "Brain barrier science: Assessing the landscape", 12th International Conference on Cerebral Vascular Biology, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. November 28, 2017.
Drewes, L. R. "Blood–brain transport pathologies: A growing challenge to the field", 20th International Symposium on Signal Transduction at the Blood Brain Barriers, Karków, Poland. September 13, 2017.
Drewes, L. R. "Lactate transport as a target for cancer therapy", Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Leipzig, Germany. September 12, 2017.
Drewes, L. R. "The NVU and specialized neural barriers in disease", Blood-Brain Barrier Consortium Meeting, OHSU, Stephenson, Washington, March 02, 2017.
Elmquist, W., Drewes, L. R., Kandimalla, K., Hunt, M. "Brain Barrier Research Center (BBRC): A multidisciplinary approach to advancing brain barriers research", Blood-brain Barrier Disruption Conference, Stevenson, Washington, March 01, 2017.
Drewes, L. R. "From gophers to first responders: A path for blood loss therapy", University of Minnesota Medical School Duluth Community Advisory Group, Duluth, Minnesota, November 09, 2016.
Drewes, L. R. "Opening lecture: Overview of the neurovascular unit", Brain Barriers Research Center, Inaugural Symposium, Minneapolis, Minnesota, October 26, 2016.
Drewes, L. R. "Blood-brain transport of metabolic fuels", Hans J. Galla Symposium, University of Münster, Münster, Germany. February 11, 2016.
De Feyter, H., Behar, K., Ip, K., Hyder, F., Drewes, L. R., de Graaf, R., Rothman, D. "Ketogenic diet-induced increase in MCT1 facilitates ketone body oxidation in rat gliomas", Society for NeuroOncology, San Antonio, Texas, November 01, 2015.
Drewes, L. R. "Brain Barrier Research Center (BBRC): A multidisciplinary approach to advancing brain barriers research", Blood-brain Barrier Disruption Conference, Stevenson, Washington, March 01, 2015.
Drewes, L. R., Liu, Z. "Monocarboxylic acid transporter 1: Regulation in rat brain endothelial cells by the WNT/Beta-catenin pathway and crosstalk with Notch signaling", BRAIN-15, Vancouver, Canada. January 01, 2015.
Drewes, L. R., Liu, Z. "Signal pathways regulating MCT1 trafficking in brain endothelial cells", CVB-15, Paris, France. January 01, 2015.
Drewes, L. R., Andrews, M. T. "Nutrient transporters switch in brain during seasonal adaptation to hibernation", International Cerebral Energy Metabolism Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark. May 01, 2014.
Drewes, L. R., Gurrapu, S., Jonnalagadda, S., Sneve, M., Venkatram, R., Mereddy, R. "Targeting lactate transporters in aerobic glycolysis for cancer therapy", International Cerebral Energy Metabolism Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark. May 01, 2014.
Elmquist, W., Drewes, L. R., Kandimalla, K., Hunt, M. "Brain Barrier Research Center (BBRC): A multidisciplinary approach to advancing brain barriers research", Blood-brain Barrier Disruption Conference, Sun River, Oregon, March 01, 2014.
Drewes, L. R., Gurrapu, S., Jonnalagadda, S., Sneve, M., Venkatram, R., Mereddy, R. "Targeting lactate transporters in aerobic glycolysis for cancer therapy", Blood-brain Barrier Disruption Conference, Portland, Oregon, March 01, 2014.
Elsayed, M., Liu, Z., Drewes, L. R. "Regulation of brain endothelial monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1)", Gordon Research Conference, New Hampshire, January 01, 2014.
Drewes, L. R. "Targeting lactate transporters in aerobic glycolysis for cancer therapy", 2nd Neuro-Oncology Symposium, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 26, 2013.
Drewes, L. R. "Meet the professor: Lester R. Drewes", 10th Cerebral Vascular Biology Conference, Montreal, Canada. June 18, 2013.
Drewes, L. R. "Brain vascular genomics: Methods for quantitation, analysis and interpretation", XXVI International Conference BRAIN-2013, Shanghai, China. May 20, 2013.
Drewes, L. R. "Brain vascular genomics: Methods for quantitation, analysis and interpretation", XXVI International Conference BRAIN-2013, International Society for Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Shanghai, China. May 20, 2013.
Drewes, L. R. "Searching for chinks in the armor: Perspectives on the neurovascular unit and delivery of CNS therapeutics", 7th European Workshop Keynote Address, Brain4Brain Conference, Frankfurt, Germany. March 08, 2013.
Drewes, L. R. "Searching for chinks in the armor: Perspectives on the neurovascular unit and delivery of CNS therapeutics", 7th European Workshop Brain4Brain Conference, Frankfurt, Germany. March 08, 2013.
Drewes, L. R. "Metabolic switch in brain during seasonal adaptation to hibernation", Hibernation 2.0, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, January 05, 2013.
Drewes, L. R. "Stop! No trespassing! Brain barriers in health and disease", University for Seniors, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, November 06, 2012.
Drewes, L. R. "Invited Presentation", 2012 Seoul Brain Barrier Symposium, November 01, 2012.
Drewes, L. R. "Stop! No trespassing! Brain barriers in health and disease", University of Minnesota Mini-Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, October 29, 2012.
Alam, M. A., Gurrapu, S., Kumar, J. S., Nelson, G. L., Just, M. J., Sleet, C. E., Drewes, L. R., Jonnalagadda, S. C., Mereddy, V. R. "Design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel small molecules as mono carboxylate transporter 1 inhibitors", 244th ACS National Meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, August 19, 2012.
Drewes, L. R. "The acute regulation of MCT1 function in brain endothelial cells", Barriers of the CNS, Gordon Research Conference, New London, New Hampshire, June 01, 2012.
Drewes, L. R. "MCT1 in CNS function and disease", Masonic Cancer Center, UMTC, Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 14, 2012.
Drewes, L. R. "Invited presentation", AAPS, May 01, 2012.
Drewes, L. R., Pérez de Lara, C., Klein, A., Lexcen, D., Beilman, G., Andrews, M. T. "Translational hibernation research: Development of a blood-loss therapy", 14th International Hibernation Conference, Vienna, Austria. January 01, 2012.
Drewes, L. R., Pérez de Lara, C., Klein, A., Lexcen, D., Beilman, G., Andrews, M. T. "Translational hibernation research: Development of a blood-loss therapy", 14th International Hibernation Conference, Vienna, Austria. January 01, 2012.
Drewes, L. R. "Blood-brain barriers in disease", BRAIN-11, International Society for Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Barcelona, Spain. May 01, 2011.
Liu, Z., Sneve, M., Drewes, L. R. "Regulation of blood-brain transport: Signaling pathways and MCT1", 10th Conference on Cerebral Vascular Biology, Leiden, Netherlands. January 01, 2011.
Liu, Z., Sneve, M., Drewes, L. R. "Blood-brain transport of lactate by MCT-1: Regulatory mechanisms", International Society for Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Barcelona, Spain. January 01, 2011.
De Feyter, H. M., Behar, K. L., Drewes, L. R., de Graaf, R. A., Rothman, D. L. "Acute hypoglycemia induces increased brain lactate uptake and metabolism in rats", International Society for Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Barcelona, Spain. January 01, 2011.
Smith, J. P., Uhernik, A. L., Nuanez, B. N., Darcy, K. T., Sneve, M., Liu, Z., Drewes, L. R. "Acute regulation of MCT1 function in cerebrovascular endothelial cells by cAMP dependent vesicular trafficking", Society for Neuroscience, Washington, District of Columbia, January 01, 2011.
Drewes, L. R. "raduate education and research in Colleges of Pharmacy: What does the future hold", College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 26, 2010.
Drewes, L. R. "Beyond blood-brain transport to translational research", College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, August 24, 2010.
Drewes, L. R. "Beyond blood-brain transport to translational research", Schulze Diabetes Institute, University of Minnesota, May 01, 2010.
Drewes, L. R., De Feyter, H. M., Behar, K. L., de Graaf, R. A., Rothman, D. L. "Increased brain lactate uptake and metabolism during hypoglycemia after ketogenic diet-induced brain adaptations in rat", January 01, 2010.
Drewes, L. R., De Feyter, H. M., Behar, K., de Graaf, R. A., Rothman, D. L. "Increased brain lactate transport and metabolism during hypoglycemia in rats fed a ketogenic diet", ISMRM, Stockholm, Sweden. January 01, 2010.
Drewes, L. R. "Invited presentation", Life Science Alley, Minneapolis, Minnesota, December 01, 2009.
Drewes, L. R. "Translational research and blood-brain transporters", Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sendai, Japan. July 01, 2009.
Drewes, L. R. "Perspectives and current trends for advancing the field of brain barriers research", International Conference on Cerebral Vascular Biology, Sendai, Japan. June 01, 2009.
Drewes, L. R. "Blood-brain transporters and translational research", Seoul Brain Barrier Symposium, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, Republic of. November 01, 2008.
Drewes, L. R. "Ketones are good for you: Therapeutics and blood-brain transport", Leibniz Institute of Molecular Pharmacology, Berlin-Buch, Germany. September 01, 2008.
Drewes, L. R. "Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) genomics and proteomics", Amgen, Thousand Oaks, California, November 01, 2006.
Drewes, L. R. "Perspectives on the blood-brain barrier: Transporters and regulation", Symposium of the Pharmaceutical Society of Korea, Seoul, Korea, Republic of. November 01, 2006.
Drewes, L. R. "Nutrient and drug delivery to the brain: View from the BBB transcriptome", Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, Republic of. November 01, 2006.
Drewes, L. R. "What is the blood-brain barrier? A molecular perspective on amino acid transport", Mastering Metabolic Therapy 2006, A Continuing Education Program for Dietitians, Las Vegas, Nevada, October 01, 2006.
Drewes, L. R. "Brain barriers: Pathways and mechanisms for blood-brain transport", College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 01, 2006.
Drewes, L. R. "Perspectives: From molecular panoramas to over the horizon", Barriers of the CNS, Gordon Research Conference, Tilton, New Hampshire, June 01, 2006.
Drewes, L. R. "AHA-sponsored research at the Medical School Duluth", 2nd Annual Regional Congress on Women’s Health, Duluth, Minnesota, May 05, 2006.
Drewes, L. R. "Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) genomics and proteomics", Blood-Brain Barrier-Neuro-oncology Conference, Sun River, Oregon, March 01, 2006.
Drewes, L. R. "Barriers in the brain", Institute of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey. December 01, 2005.
Drewes, L. R. "Postbaccalaureate careers and brain research", Capital University, Columbus, Ohio, October 01, 2005.
Matson, C. T., Basak, S. C., Drewes, L. R. "Prediction of blood: Brain penetration of chemicals using computed molecular descriptors", 6th Conference on Cerebral Vascular Biology, Münster, Germany. January 01, 2005.
Matson, C., Basak, S., Drewes, L. R. "Prediction of blood: Brain penetration of chemicals using computed molecular descriptors", Fourth Indo-U.S. Workshop on Mathematical Chemistry, Maharashtra, India. January 01, 2005.
Matson, C. T., Basak, S. C., Drewes, L. R. "Blood to brain permeability computed using molecular descriptors", 229th American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Diego, California, January 01, 2005.
Drewes, L. R. "Barriers in the brain: Profiles in vascular gene expression and regulation", Department of Physiology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, December 01, 2004.
Drewes, L. R. "Ischemia-induced modifications in the blood-brain barrier", New Frontiers in Translational Research in Neuro-oncology and the Blood-brain Barrier, Bend, Oregon, March 01, 2004.
Drewes, L. R., Enerson, B. E. "Ischemia-induced modifications in the blood-brain barrier", New Frontiers in Translational Research in Neuro-oncology and the Blood-brain Barrier, Bend, Oregon, January 01, 2004.
Drewes, L. R., Enerson, B. E. "Brain vascular genomics following ischemia", Experimental Biology 2004, Washington, District of Columbia, January 01, 2004.
Drewes, L. R., Smith, J. P. "Modulation of MCT1 kinetic function by the cAMP signaling pathway in rat brain endothelial cells", 7th Symposium Signal Transduction in the Blood-Brain Barriers, Potsdam, Germany. January 01, 2004.
Enerson, B. E., Drewes, L. R. "The rat blood-brain barrier transcriptome", 21st International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Calgary, Canada. January 01, 2004.
Drewes, L. R., Matson, C. T., Basak, S. C. "Prediction of blood: Brain penetration of chemicals using computed molecular descriptors", 21st Southwest Theoretical Chemistry Conference, Galveston, Texas, January 01, 2004.
Drewes, L. R. "SAGE Advise: A gene expression profiling method applied to the ischemic blood-brain barrier", Pharmacogenomics Special Interest Group, School of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, November 01, 2003.
Drewes, L. R. "Frontiers in genomic and proteomic approaches to blood-brain transport", American Association of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Atlanta, Georgia, March 01, 2003.
Henry, P. G., Russeth, K. P., Tkac, I., Drewes, L. R., Andrews, M. T., Gruetter, R. "Neurochemical profile of the hibernating ground squirrel measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy", Joint Meeting of the International Society for Neurochemistry, and Asian-Pacific Society for Neurochemistry, Hong Kong, China. January 01, 2003.
Enerson, B. E., Drewes, L. R. "Transcript analysis of the blood-brain barrier", Third Indo-US Workshop on Mathematical Chemistry: With Applications to Drug Discovery, Environmental Toxicology, Chemoinformatics and Bioinformatics, Duluth, Minnesota, January 01, 2003.
Drewes, L. R. "Regulation of MCTs in brain", 6th International Meeting for Brain Energy Metabolism, Beijing, China. January 01, 2003.
Enerson, B. E., Drewes, L. R. "The rat blood-brain barrier transcriptome", 21st International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Calgary, Canada. January 01, 2003.
Enerson, B. E., Drewes, L. R. "A serial analysis of gene expression view of the blood-brain barrier", Joint Meeting of the International Society for Neurochemistry, and Asian-Pacific Society for Neurochemistry, Hong Kong, China. January 01, 2003.
Basak, N., Peterson, D., Drewes, L. R. "A proteomic analysis of the blood-brain barrier", 5th International Conference on Cerebral Vascular Biology, Amarillo, Texas, January 01, 2003.
Enerson, B. E., Drewes, L. R. "The molecular portrait of the cerebral microvasculature", 5th International Conference on Cerebral Vascular Biology, Amarillo, Texas, January 01, 2003.
Basak, N., Drewes, L. R. "A proteomic analysis of the blood-brain barrier", Third Indo-US Workshop on Mathematical Chemistry: With Applications to Drug Discovery, Environmental Toxicology, Chemoinformatics and Bioinformatics, Duluth, Minnesota, January 01, 2003.
Drewes, L. R. "Functional genomics of cerebrovascular disease and monocarboxylate transporter 1", Seminars in Medicine, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, December 01, 2002.
Drewes, L. R. "What is the blood-brain barrier: A molecular viewpoint", Mucopolysaccharidosis Conference, Bethesda, Maryland, September 01, 2002.
Drewes, L. R. "Application of stem cells in biomedical research", Virginia Regional Medical Center, Virginia, Minnesota, February 01, 2002.
Enerson, B. E., Sneve, M., Cormier, R. L., Drewes, L. R. "Differential gene expression in brains of rats fed a ketogenic diet", Experimental Biology 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, January 01, 2002.
Smith, J. P., Drewes, L. R. "Regulation of MCT1 function by protein kinase-A and -C pathways in cerebral endothelial cells", Society for Neuroscience, January 01, 2002.
Drewes, L. R. "Molecular architecture of transport at the blood-brain interface", Elan Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey, December 01, 2001.
Drewes, L. R. "Natural properties of the blood-brain-CSF interfaces", United Leukodystrophy Foundation International Conference, Chicago, Illinois, July 01, 2001.
Drewes, L. R. "The UM-Duluth genomics node", University Genomics Initiative Review, Minneapolis, Minnesota, March 01, 2001.
Drewes, L. R. "Breaking down the barriers: New perspectives on the brain endothelium and lactate transporter", epartment of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, January 01, 2001.
Gerhart, D. Z., Leino, R. L., Drewes, L. R. "Monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 is increased in cerebral cortical capillaries of rats injected with pentylenetetrazole", 4th International Conference Cerebral Vascular Biology Blood-brain Barrier, Cambridge, United Kingdom. January 01, 2001.
Enerson, B. E., Cormier, R. T., Drewes, L. R. "Generation of a transgenic mouse overexpressing MCT1 in the brain endothelium", 4th International Conference Cerebral Vascular Biology Blood-brain Barrier, Cambridge, United Kingdom. January 01, 2001.
Enerson, B. E., Drewes, L. R. "MCT1 induction by cobalt chloride in cultured brain endothelial cells", 4th International Conference Cerebral Vascular Biology Blood-brain Barrier, Cambridge, United Kingdom. January 01, 2001.
Duelli, R., Canis, M., Maurer, M. H., Drewes, L. R., Kuschinsky, W. "Correlation between densities of monocarboxylate and glucose transporters in rat brain", 20th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Taipei, Taiwan. January 01, 2001.
Duelli, R., Enerson, B. E., Gerhart, D. Z., Drewes, L. R. "Large amino acid transporter LAT1 is expressed at the blood-brain barrier", 20th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Taipei, Taiwan. January 01, 2001.
Drewes, L. R. "The blood-brain barrier drug delivery and pathology", 44th OHOLO Conference, Dead Sea, Israel. September 01, 2000.
Drewes, L. R. "Brain uptake of fatty acids", Bethesda, Maryland, March 01, 2000.
Duelli, R., Enerson, B. E., Gerhart, D. Z., Drewes, L. R. "Large amino acid transporter LAT1 is expressed at the blood-brain barrier", Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, Louisiana, January 01, 2000.
Drewes, L. R. "Got MCTs? The role of monocarboxylate transporters in the blood-brain barrier", Ohio University, November 01, 1999.
Drewes, L. R. "Got MCTs? The role of monocarboxylate transporters in the CNS", University of Minnesota Medical School Duluth Campus, Duluth, Minnesota, October 01, 1999.
Drewes, L. R. "Brain Fuels and Drug Delivery: Is your brain ready for the 21st century?", University Seniors Convocation, Duluth, Minnesota, September 01, 1999.
Drewes, L. R. "Barriers of the central nervous system", First Gordon Research Conference, New Hampshire, July 01, 1999.
Drewes, L. R. "Got MCTs? The neurobiology of monocarboxylic acid transporters", University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, April 01, 1999.
Drewes, L. R. "Food for thought: What is the evidence that brain cells use lactate as energy?", American Society for Neurochemistry Workshop, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 01, 1999.
Drewes, L. R. "The blood-brain barrier", 11th Biennial International Symposium on Hypoxia and Mountain Medicine, Alberta, Canada. February 01, 1999.
Enerson, B. E., Drewes, L. R. "Identification of multiple splice variants of monocarboxylate transporter MCT4", Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ’99, San Francisco, California, January 01, 1999.
Duelli, R., Enerson, B., Gerhart, D. Z., Leino, R., West, E. J., Drewes, L. R. "Brain neurons express the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 protein", 19th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Copenhagen, Denmark. January 01, 1999.
Gerhart, D. Z., Leino, R., Duelli, R., Enerson, B., Froberg, K., Drewes, L. R. "Brain neurons express the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 protein", 19th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Copenhagen, Denmark. January 01, 1999.
Gerhart, D. Z., Enerson, B. E., Duelli, R., Froberg, M. K., Leino, R. L., Drewes, L. R. "The monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 is increased in brains of Alzheimer’s patients", Society for Neuroscience, Miami, Florida, January 01, 1999.
Drewes, L. R. "Glucose and monocarboxylic acid transporters and their relation to brain energy metabolism", Society for Neurochemistry, New Orleans, Louisiana, January 01, 1999.
Duelli, R., Enerson, B. E., Gerhart, D. Z., Leino, R. L., Sneve, M. G., Drewes, L. R. "Regulation of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-4 during ketogenic diet in rat brain", Society for Neuroscience, Miami, Florida, January 01, 1999.
Drewes, L. R. "Frontiers in neuroscience: Think about it!", Sigma Xi-Arrowhead Chapter, Duluth, Minnesota, December 01, 1998.
Drewes, L. R. "Current perspectives of blood-brain transport", University of Minnesota Medical School Duluth Campus, Duluth, Minnesota, October 01, 1998.
Drewes, L. R. "The brain vasculature: Brick barrier or dynamic interface", St. Mary’s/Duluth Clinic Health System, Duluth, Minnesota, October 01, 1998.
Drewes, L. R. "CNS as HIV reservoir: BBB and drug delivery", NIH/NINDS Program Planning Panel on Neuro-AIDS, Washington, District of Columbia, September 01, 1998.
Drewes, L. R. "Brain barrier systems", The Alfred Benzon Symposium, Copenhagen, Denmark. August 01, 1998.
Vedvik, K. L., Drewes, L. R. "Identification of a sodium independent nucleoside transporter in rat brain", Experimental Biology ’98, San Francisco, California, January 01, 1998.
Drewes, L. R., Gerhart, D. Z., Leino, R. L., Enerson, B. E. "Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) at the blood-ocular barrier", Cerebrovascular Biology and the Blood-Brain Barrier: Challenges and Future Directions, Glenden Beach, Oregon, January 01, 1998.
Gerhart, D. Z., Leino, R., Drewes, L. R. "Monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT2 in rat retinal cells", Experimental Biology ’98, San Francisco, California, January 01, 1998.
Enerson, B. E., Zhdankina, O., Gerhart, D. Z., Drewes, L. R. "Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) expression in developing rat brain", Experimental Biology ’98, San Francisco, California, January 01, 1998.
Drewes, L. R., Gerhart, D. Z., Leino, R. L., Enerson, B. E. "Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) at the blood-ocular barrier", Cerebral Vascular Biology ’98, Portland, Oregon, January 01, 1998.
Drewes, L. R. "What fuels the brain?", Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, December 01, 1997.
Drewes, L. R. "Invited presentation", Minnesota Academy of Sciences, St. Paul, Minnesota, January 01, 1997.
Drewes, L. R., Gerhart, D. Z., Leino, R. L., Enerson, B. E. "Astrocyte foot process and blood-brain transport", Mechanisms of Cerebrovascular Function and Regulation, Williamsburg, Virginia, January 01, 1997.
Gerhart, D. Z., Enerson, B., Zhdankina, O., Leino, R., Drewes, L. R. "Monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 expression by brain endothelial cells and glia in adult and suckling rats", 18th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Baltimore, Maryland, January 01, 1997.
Drewes, L. R., Gerhart, D. Z., Gronlund, K. M., Leino, R. L. "GLUT1 is a neuronal glucose transporter", 17th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Cologne, Germany. January 01, 1995.
Drewes, L. R., Gronlund, K. M., Leino, R. L., Gerhart, D. Z. "Increased expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in rat brain following kainic acid-induced seizures", 17th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Cologne, Germany. January 01, 1995.
Bergmann, R., Roux, F., Borson, N., Drewes, L. R. "PCR analysis of blood-brain barrier specific transporters in RBE4 cells", 2nd International Symposium on Drug Transport to the Brain, Leiden, Netherlands. January 01, 1995.
Drewes, L. R. "Glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier", Will Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, November 01, 1994.
Drewes, L. R. "Recent advances in glucose transporter biology", Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, April 01, 1994.
Drewes, L. R., Gerhart, D. Z., Gronlund, K. M. "GLUT3 expression in the brain vasculature: Sequence and species comparisons", New Concepts of a Blood-Brain Barrier, London, England. January 01, 1994.
Drewes, L. R. "Recent advances in glucose transporter biology", FASEB Summer Research Conference, Snowmass, Colorado, August 01, 1993.
Gerhart, D. Z., Leino, R. L., Taylor, W. E., Borson, N. D., Drewes, L. R. "Glucose transporter mRNAs in brain following ischemia", FASEB Summer Research Conference on Recent Advances in Glucose Transporter Biology, Snowmass, Colorado, January 01, 1993.
Man, Z., Borson, N. D., Drewes, L. R. "Amino acid transporter in canine brain: Preliminary identification and partial sequence of a transporter-like cDNA", Frontiers in Cerebral Vascular Biology: Transport and its Regulation, Duluth, Minnesota, January 01, 1992.
Drewes, L. R., Broderius, M. A., Gerhart, D. Z. "Glucose transporter isoforms (GLUT1 and GLUT3) in brain", 15th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Miami, Florida, January 01, 1991.
Djuricic, B., Assaf, H. M., Wittingham, T. S., Drewes, L. R., Lust, W. D. "Neuroprotective effects of nipecotic acid following ischemia in hippocampal slices", 15th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Miami, Florida, January 01, 1991.
Lust, D., Djuricic, B., Assaf, H., Drewes, L. R., Sternau, L., Ratcheson, R. "GABA homeostasis during anoxia and ischemia in vitro", 15th International Joint Conference on Stroke and Cerebral Circulation, Miami, Florida, January 01, 1990.
Lust, D., Djuricic, B., Olson, S., Assaf, H., Wittingham, T., Drewes, L. R. "Unesterified choline during metabolic stress in vitro", 15th International Joint Conference on Stroke and Cerebral Circulation, Miami, Florida, January 01, 1990.
Gerhart, D. Z., Drewes, L. R. "Distribution and regulation of glucose transporters in brain", American Society for Neurochemistry, Phoenix, Arizona, January 01, 1990.
Qian, Z., Drewes, L. R. "A novel mechanism for acetylcholine to generate diacyglycerol in brain", American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New Orleans, Louisiana, January 01, 1990.
Qian, Z., Reddy, P. V., Drewes, L. R. "Microsomal phospholipase D from canine cerebral cortex: A role of the G protein in activation", FASEB, New Orleans, Louisiana, January 01, 1989.
Djuricic, B., Broderius, M. A., Drewes, L. R. "Polyamines in cultured brain endothelium after calcium overload", American Chemical Society Regional Meeting, Duluth, Minnesota, January 01, 1989.
Ludwig, J. R., Drewes, L. R., Poe, D. P., Johnson, K. E. "An evaluation of alumina cleanup as a preparation for polychlorobiphenyls, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran congener-specific analysis", American Chemical Society Regional Meeting, Duluth, Minnesota, January 01, 1989.
Qian, Z., Reddy, P. V., Drewes, L. R. "Microsomal phospholipase D from canine cerebral cortex: A role of the G protein in activation", American Chemical Society Regional Meeting, Duluth, Minnesota, January 01, 1989.
Gerhart, D. Z., LeVasseur, R. J., Drewes, L. R. "Distribution of glucose transporters in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve using a specific polyclonal antibody", 14th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Bologna, Italy. January 01, 1989.
Gerhart, D. Z., LeVasseur, R. J., Broderius, M. A., Drewes, L. R. "Glucose transporter localization in brain using light and electron immunocytochemistry", American Chemical Society Regional Meeting, Duluth, Minnesota, January 01, 1989.
Reddy, P. V., Drewes, L. R. "Transport of palmitate from blood to brain and its incorporation into lipids", FASEB, Las Vegas, Nevada, January 01, 1988.
Drewes, L. R. "Cholinergic mechanisms of cerebral blood flow regulation in organophosphate-induced seizures", 13th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Montreal, Canada. January 01, 1987.
Gerhart, D. Z., Broderius, M. A., Drewes, L. R. "Characteristics of endothelial cells cultured from human and canine brain microvessels", 13th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Montreal, Canada. January 01, 1987.
Fatehi, M. I., Gerhart, D. Z., Drewes, L. R. "Characterization of the blood-brain barrier: Glycoconjugate receptors of 14 lectins in canine brain, cultured endothelial cells, and blotted membrane proteins", 13th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Montreal, Canada. January 01, 1987.
Drewes, L. R., Broderius, M. A. "Stimulation of glucose uptake by brain endothelial cells in response to phorbol ester", Symposium of Biology of the Endothelial Cell, Kingston, Canada. January 01, 1987.
Kloiber, O., Banjac, B., Drewes, L. R. "Protection against acute hyperammonemia: The role of quaternary amines", 1st Meeting of the International Neurotoxicology Association, Lunteren, Netherlands. January 01, 1987.
Reddy, P. V., Banjac, B., Drewes, L. R. "Cholinergic agonists and organophosphate-induced metabolic and physiologic alterations in brain", 6th Medical Chemical Defense Review, Washington, District of Columbia, January 01, 1987.
Kloiber, O., Drewes, L. R. "[6^-14C]Glucose for cerebral metabolic rate measurements in the isolated canine brain", 13th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Montreal, Canada. January 01, 1987.
Kloiber, O., Drewes, L. R. "Uptake of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine in the rat brain and other tissues", January 01, 1986.
Drewes, L. R., Singh, A. K. "Brain metabolism and transport of choline", January 01, 1986.
Singh, A. K., Drewes, L. R. "Choline transport and metabolism in brain exposed to an organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor", USAMRDC 5th Annual Chemical Defense Bioscience Review, Washington, District of Columbia, January 01, 1985.
Drewes, L. R., Gerhart, D. Z., Zeleznikar Jr., R. J., Zlonis, M. S. "Blood-brain barrier in vivo and in vitro: Characteristics of the endothelial cell", Acta Neurologica Scand, Copenhagen, Denmark. January 01, 1985.
Kerckhoff, W., Drewes, L. R., Bellemann, P., Hoffmeister, F. "Transport of the Ca-antagonists nimodipine and nifedipine across the blood-brain barrier", 12th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Sweden. January 01, 1985.
Drewes, L. R., Singh, A. K. "Cerebral metabolism and blood-brain transport: Toxicity of organophosphorus compounds", USAMRDC 5th Annual Chemical Defense Bioscience Review, Washington, District of Columbia, January 01, 1985.
Drewes, L. R., Singh, A. K. "Perfused canine brain: Metabolism and blood brain transport during altered metabolic states", International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue, Ruston, Louisiana, January 01, 1983.
Singh, A. K., Zeleznikar Jr., R. J., Drewes, L. R. "Neurotoxic effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on the isolated canine brain", 9th Meeting of the International Society for Neurochemistry, Vancouver, Canada. January 01, 1983.
Singh, A. K., Zeleznikar Jr., R. J., Drewes, L. R. "Cerebral metabolism and blood brain transport: Toxicity of organophosphorus compounds", USAMRDC 3rd Annual Chemical Defense Bioscience Review, Washington, District of Columbia, January 01, 1983.
Gjedde, A., Drewes, L. R., Christensen, B. "Brain uptake of a “fluid microsphere”: Comparison of flunitrazepam, water and iodoantipyrine transfer across the blood-brain barrier", Congress of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Paris, France. January 01, 1983.
Drewes, L. R. "Cerebral metabolism and blood brain transport during elevated blood ammonia and octanoate", January 01, 1982.
Lidinsky, W. A., Drewes, L. R. "Membrane composition of isolated capillaries from dog brain", 11th International Congress of Biochemistry, Toronto, Canada. January 01, 1979.
Wendlandt, G. W., Drewes, L. R. "Nucleotide and nucleoside analysis of cerebral cortex by HPLC", Minnesota Chromatography Forum, Minneapolis, Minnesota, January 01, 1979.
Drewes, L. R., Frazin, L., Levin, A. B. "Blood flow in the isolated, perfused dog brain: Normal oxygenation vs. anoxic anoxia", January 01, 1975.
Drewes, L. R., Gilboe, D. D. "Acetoacetate and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate uptake by the isolated, perfused dog brain", January 01, 1974.
Drewes, L. R., Gilboe, D. D. "Oxidation of branched chain amino acids by the isolated, perfused dog brain", January 01, 1973.
Drewes, L. R., Gilboe, D. D. "Glucose and lactate flux and adenylate energy charge in brain during anoxia and postanoxic recovery", January 01, 1972.
Drewes, L. R., Gilboe, D. D. "Changes in glycolysis in the brain during anoxia and postanoxic recovery", January 01, 1971.
Grants and Patents

Grants and Patents

Patents

Therapeutic Compounds. Issued: 2017
Antibodies against the rat monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 and MCT2.
Treatment or therapies involving blood-brain barrier transporters in treatment or prevention of stroke.
Methods and compositions to prevent or reduce ischemic damage and reperfusion injury in tissues and organs.
Ischemia/reperfusion protection compositions and methods of using.
schemia/reperfusion protection compositions and methods of using.
Ischemia/reperfusion protection compositions and methods of using.
Ischemia/reperfusion protection compositions and methods of using.
Ischemia/reperfusion protection compositions and methods of using.
Ischemia/reperfusion protection compositions and methods of using.
Blood Loss Therapy, Tamniasyn.
Therapeutic Compounds.
Therapeutic Compounds.
Contact

Contact

Address

251 SMed
1035 University Dr
Duluth, MN 55812