Michael Linden
M.D., Ph.D.

Director of Hematopathology

Research Summary

Dr. Linden is the Director of Hematopathology. During his graduate studies, he spearheaded the development of groundbreaking genetically engineered mouse models of multiple myeloma, mimicking many of the features of the human disease. Notably, one of these models yielded long-lived polyclonal plasma cells, a breakthrough technology crucial in producing reagent antibodies for research purposes. Since completing his clinical training, Dr. Linden has focused his myeloma research on advancing laboratory diagnoses, clinical monitoring, and predicting disease resistance to therapy.

For a decade, Dr. Linden served on the College of American Pathologists’ Diagnostic Immunology and Flow Cytometry Committee, eventually assuming the role of Chair. His leadership played a pivotal role in refining the Laboratory Accreditation Program’s Flow Cytometry Checklist, enhancing the standardization of flow cytometric minimal residual disease testing for patients, including those with myeloma. Under his guidance, the committee also introduced several new Proficiency Testing (PT) products, including one tailored to evaluate a lab’s ability to detect myeloma minimal residual disease.

Transitioning to the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology (CALGB), Dr. Linden assumed central roles within the Myeloma and Pathology Committees. In 2022, he was appointed Chair of the Pathology Committee, where he continues to spearhead initiatives related to biobanking and correlative science (laboratory-based biomarker testing) for clinical trials.

Beyond his professional accomplishments, Dr. Linden is deeply committed to mentorship, guiding the next generation of students, residents, fellows, and junior faculty. His extensive background in project management, leadership, and advocacy underscores his dedication to advancing healthcare and academic medicine through innovation and expertise.

Selected Publications  

(for a more comprehensive list of publications, click Here). 

Atlas of Flow Cytometry.  Dorfman, D., Karlon, W., and Linden, M. A. Ed., CAP Press, Northfield, IL, 2023.

Dorfman DM, Devitt KA, Cui W, Bashleben C, Naharro ECF, Hedley B, Hupp M, Karlon WJ, Murphy CE, Cherian S, Olteanu H, Seifert RP, Rosado FN, Linden MA. PCNEO, a New Proficiency Testing Program for Flow Cytometric Analysis of Plasma Cell Neoplasms From the College of American Pathologists Diagnostic Immunology and Flow Cytometry Committee. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2023 Sep 30. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2023-0035-CP. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37776247.

Baughn LB, Jessen E, Sharma N, Tang H, Smadbeck JB, Long MD, Pearce K, Smith M, Dasari S, Sachs Z, Linden MA, Cook J, Keith Stewart A, Chesi M, Mitra A, Leif Bergsagel P, Van Ness B, Kumar SK. Mass Cytometry reveals unique phenotypic patterns associated with subclonal diversity and outcomes in multiple myeloma. Blood Cancer J. 2023 May 22;13(1):84. doi: 10.1038/s41408-023-00851-5. PMID: 37217482; PMCID: PMC10203138.

Hupp MM, Bashleben C, Cardinali JL, Dorfman DM, Karlon W, Keeney M, Leith C, Long T, Murphy CE, Pillai V, Rosado FN, Seegmiller AC, Linden MA. Participation in the College of American Pathologists Laboratory Accreditation Program Decreases Variability in B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Plasma Cell Myeloma Flow Cytometric Minimal Residual Disease Testing: A Follow-up Survey. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2021 Mar 1;145(3):336-342. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2019-0493-CP. PMID: 32886757.

Courville EL, Yohe S, Shivers P, Linden MA. VS38 Identifies Myeloma Cells With Dim CD38 Expression and Plasma Cells Following Daratumumab Therapy, Which Interferes With CD38 Detection for 4 to 6 Months. Am J Clin Pathol. 2020 Jan 2;153(2):221-228. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/aqz153. PMID: 31679012.

Baughn LB, Sachs Z, Noble-Orcutt KE, Mitra A, Van Ness BG, Linden MA. Phenotypic and functional characterization of a bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma cell line by flow and mass cytometry. Leuk Lymphoma. 2017 Aug;58(8):1931-1940. doi: 10.1080/10428194.2016.1266621. Epub 2016 Dec 16. PMID: 27981867; PMCID: PMC5504883.

Baughn LB, Linden MA. Standardization of Minimal Residual Disease Testing in Multiple Myeloma. J Appl Lab Med. 2017 Jul 1;2(1):118-122. doi: 10.1373/jalm.2016.020883. PMID: 33636956.

Keeney M, Halley JG, Rhoads DD, Ansari MQ, Kussick SJ, Karlon WJ, Mehta KU, Dorfman DM, Linden MA. Marked Variability in Reported Minimal Residual Disease Lower Level of Detection of 4 Hematolymphoid Neoplasms: A Survey of Participants in the College of American Pathologists Flow Cytometry Proficiency Testing Program. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015 Oct;139(10):1276-80. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2014-0543-CP. Epub 2015 Feb 19. PMID: 25695342.

Fall DJ, Stessman H, Patel SS, Sachs Z, Van Ness BG, Baughn LB, Linden MA. Utilization of translational bioinformatics to identify novel biomarkers of bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma. J Cancer. 2014 Sep 21;5(9):720-7. doi: 10.7150/jca.9864. PMID: 25368671; PMCID: PMC4216795.

Stessman HA, Mansoor A, Linden MA, Van Ness B, Baughn LB. Stabilization of activation induced cytidine deaminase by bortezomib does not confer increased drug target mutation frequency. Leuk Lymphoma. 2014 Jan;55(1):220-2. doi: 10.3109/10428194.2013.797575. Epub 2013 Jun 4. PMID: 23734619.

Stessman HA, Mansoor A, Zhan F, Linden MA, Van Ness B, Baughn LB. Bortezomib resistance can be reversed by induced expression of plasma cell maturation markers in a mouse in vitro model of multiple myeloma. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 29;8(10):e77608. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077608. PMID: 24204892; PMCID: PMC3812176.

Stessman HA, Mansoor A, Zhan F, Janz S, Linden MA, Baughn LB, Van Ness B. Reduced CXCR4 expression is associated with extramedullary disease in a mouse model of myeloma and predicts poor survival in multiple myeloma patients treated with bortezomib. Leukemia. 2013 Oct;27(10):2075-7. doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.148. Epub 2013 May 14. PMID: 23728080; PMCID: PMC4053943.

Stessman HA, Baughn LB, Sarver A, Xia T, Deshpande R, Mansoor A, Walsh SA, Sunderland JJ, Dolloff NG, Linden MA, Zhan F, Janz S, Myers CL, Van Ness BG. Profiling bortezomib resistance identifies secondary therapies in a mouse myeloma model. Mol Cancer Ther. 2013 Jun;12(6):1140-50. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-12-1151. Epub 2013 Mar 27. PMID: 23536725; PMCID: PMC4076840.

Linden MA, Kirchhof N, Carlson CS, Van Ness BG. Targeted overexpression of an activated N-ras gene results in B-cell and plasma cell lymphoproliferation and cooperates with c-myc to induce fatal B-cell neoplasia. Exp Hematol. 2012 Mar;40(3):216-27. doi: 10.1016/j.exphem.2011.11.006. Epub 2011 Nov 23. PMID: 22120021; PMCID: PMC3279594.

Linden M, Kirchhof N, Kvitrud M, Van Ness B. ABL-MYC retroviral infection elicits bone marrow plasma cell tumors in Bcl-X(L) transgenic mice. Leuk Res. 2005 Apr;29(4):435-44. doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2004.09.007. Epub 2004 Dec 18. PMID: 15725478.

Cheung WC, Kim JS, Linden M, Peng L, Van Ness B, Polakiewicz RD, Janz S. Novel targeted deregulation of c-Myc cooperates with Bcl-X(L) to cause plasma cell neoplasms in mice. J Clin Invest. 2004 Jun;113(12):1763-73. doi: 10.1172/JCI20369. PMID: 15199411; PMCID: PMC420503.

Linden M, Kirchhof N, Carlson C, Van Ness B. Targeted overexpression of Bcl-XL in B-lymphoid cells results in lymphoproliferative disease and plasma cell malignancies. Blood. 2004 Apr 1;103(7):2779-86. doi: 10.1182/blood-2003-10-3399. Epub 2003 Dec 4. PMID: 14656874.


Clinical Summary

• Lymph node pathology • Bone marrow pathology • Flow cytometry • Minimal residual disease • External quality assurance/proficiency testing • Plasma cell myeloma

Fellowships, Residencies, and Visiting Engagements

University of Washington, Seattle (Hematopathology), 2010-2011,
University of Washington, Seattle (Anatomic and Clinical Pathology), 2006-2010,

Licensures and Certifications

Anatomic and Clinical Pathology,



Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
420 Delaware St SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455-0341