Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of myocardial infarction, strokes and gangrene. One of the dominant features of the atherosclerotic lesion is the presence of calcification. Previous studies have focused on the normal calcification processes involving skeletal tissue. Developments in calcification research have lead to the recognition of similarities between normal calcification of skeletal tissue and abnormal calcification in the vascular wall at atherosclerotic sites. The primary research objective has been to apply information and techniques used in studying normal calcifying tissues to the calcification process occurring in atheromatous lesions. This includes determining if osteogenic cell proteins are present in calcifying coronary arteries, what known bone growth factors may be present and responsible for coronary artery calcification, and messenger RNA levels of proteins relevant to the calcification process. These studies have wide-ranging implications for the prevention of coronary artery calcification because of the many new drugs and antibodies currently available (or in development) that alter the calcification process in bone. The finding of similar features between normal calcified tissue and calcified coronary arteries will guide future research and therapies that could prevent coronary artery disease. Facilitating the transformation of undergraduate medical education as medical education moves into the next decades is another endeavor being undertaken. One approach to education being pursued is Team-Based Learning (TBL). TBL assumes that learning goals for a subject be faculty-directed and used to guide individual and group learning activities. In TBL, students initially learn by receiving learning objectives and preparing before class by using the learning objectives. At the beginning of each class period, individual students take a readiness assessment quiz on the material studied. A similar quiz is then administered to designated groups of students (group quiz) in which the students discuss the possible answers and defend their reasoning. The group decides on the correct answer, and the group quiz is then discussed in the classroom. Discussion of clinical cases related to the subject follow. TBL emphasizes three keys to effective active learning: 1) individual and group accountability, 2) need and opportunity for group interaction; and 3) motivation to engage in give-and-take discussion. Documentation of the learning experience indicates positive enhancement of medical knowledge and clinical understanding. Emphasis on independent learning by developing computer-assisted learning tools for both radiographic anatomy and neuroanatomy has been a priority over several decades. Radiographic and Sectional Anatomy and NeuroTime serve as independent supplemental tools for the learning of structures and anatomical relationships. Another area of current educational activity is the development of self-assessment learning quizzes. These consist primarily of short clinical vignettes that focus on the current learning area for the student. These learning tools enable the student to investigate clinical problems with follow-up multiple choice questions related to the clinical condition.